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Where the variable-ratio schedule is unpredictable, the fixed-ratio schedule is set at a fixed rate.
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Br J Psychol. Comparative Cognition Library University of Iowa. Schedule of reinforcement. More in Theories. View All. Variable-Ratio Schedule Reinforcement provided after varying set of responses Delivery schedule unpredictable Examples include slot machines, door-to-door sales, video games.
Fixed-Ratio Schedule Reinforcement provided after a set number of responses Delivery schedule predictable Examples include production line work, grade card rewards, sales commissions.
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Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Related Articles. This reinforcement schedule is the quickest way to teach someone a behavior, and it is especially effective in training a new behavior.
Now, each time he sits, you give him a treat. Timing is important here: you will be most successful if you present the reinforcer immediately after he sits, so that he can make an association between the target behavior sitting and the consequence getting a treat.
A fixed interval reinforcement schedule is when behavior is rewarded after a set amount of time. For example, June undergoes major surgery in a hospital.
During recovery, she is expected to experience pain and will require prescription medications for pain relief. June is given an IV drip with a patient-controlled painkiller.
Her doctor sets a limit: one dose per hour. June pushes a button when pain becomes difficult, and she receives a dose of medication.
Since the reward pain relief only occurs on a fixed interval, there is no point in exhibiting the behavior when it will not be rewarded.
With a variable interval reinforcement schedule , the person or animal gets the reinforcement based on varying amounts of time, which are unpredictable.
Say that Manuel is the manager at a fast-food restaurant. Manuel never knows when the quality control person will show up, so he always tries to keep the restaurant clean and ensures that his employees provide prompt and courteous service.
His productivity regarding prompt service and keeping a clean restaurant are steady because he wants his crew to earn the bonus.
With a fixed ratio reinforcement schedule , there are a set number of responses that must occur before the behavior is rewarded.
Carla sells glasses at an eyeglass store, and she earns a commission every time she sells a pair of glasses. She always tries to sell people more pairs of glasses, including prescription sunglasses or a backup pair, so she can increase her commission.
She does not care if the person really needs the prescription sunglasses, Carla just wants her bonus. This distinction in the quality of performance can help determine which reinforcement method is most appropriate for a particular situation.
Fixed ratios are better suited to optimize the quantity of output, whereas a fixed interval, in which the reward is not quantity based, can lead to a higher quality of output.
In a variable ratio reinforcement schedule , the number of responses needed for a reward varies. This is the most powerful partial reinforcement schedule.
An example of the variable ratio reinforcement schedule is gambling. Imagine that Sarah—generally a smart, thrifty woman—visits Las Vegas for the first time.
She is not a gambler, but out of curiosity she puts a quarter into the slot machine, and then another, and another.
Nothing happens. Two dollars in quarters later, her curiosity is fading, and she is just about to quit. But then, the machine lights up, bells go off, and Sarah gets 50 quarters back.
Now might be a sensible time to quit. And yet, she keeps putting money into the slot machine because she never knows when the next reinforcement is coming.
Because the reinforcement schedule in most types of gambling has a variable ratio schedule, people keep trying and hoping that the next time they will win big.
This is one of the reasons that gambling is so addictive—and so resistant to extinction. In operant conditioning, extinction of a reinforced behavior occurs at some point after reinforcement stops, and the speed at which this happens depends on the reinforcement schedule.
In a variable ratio schedule, the point of extinction comes very slowly, as described above. But in the other reinforcement schedules, extinction may come quickly.
For example, if June presses the button for the pain relief medication before the allotted time her doctor has approved, no medication is administered.
Among the reinforcement schedules, variable ratio is the most productive and the most resistant to extinction.
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